What is TNS, CL, CEA , HD ?


TNS is Trapped Neutrophil Syndrome

 Trapped Neutrophil Syndrome, an hereditary disease where the bone marrow produces neutrophils (white cells) but is unable to effectively release them into the bloodstream. Affected puppies have an impaired immune system and will eventually die from infections they cannot fight.

Once thought to be rare, it is now believed that the disease goes undiagnosed for several reasons. First, not very many veterinarians know about the disease to look for it. Second, even when looking, blood counts do not always show lower than normal neutrophil (white blood cell) counts. Finally, because it is an autoimmune-deficiency disease, young puppies present a variety of symptoms depending upon what infections they fall prone to. Thus many cases are not properly diagnosed and have just been thought to be "fading puppies".

Making the diagnosis even more difficult is the fact that age of onset varies depending on which infection is involved at the time. Most puppies become ill before leaving the breeder but some do not have symptoms until later. The oldest known survivor was 2 years 8 months. Most affected puppies die or are euthanized by about 4 months of age.

It is autosomal recessive, which means that both parents have to be
carriers to produce an affected puppy.



NCL is Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis

Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis is a type of lysosomal storage disorder that results in accumulation of lysosomal storage bodies in the cells of many tissues of the affected animal. This leads to progressive degeneration of brain and eye cells and results in severe neurological impairment and early death. Affected dogs appear normal at birth, but begin to exhibit symptoms early in life – around 1- 2 years of age. The age of onset and severity of the disease can vary greatly among individual dogs. The symptoms include progressive motor decline with seizures and loss of coordinated muscle movements, cognitive decline and abnormal behavior. Visual impairment may occur. Due to the severity of the disease, affected Border Collies rarely survive beyond 26-28 months. There is no treatment or cure at this time.



CEA is Collie Eye Anomaly/Choroidial Hypoplasia

Border Collies share Collie Eye Anomaly (CEA) with several other breeds – it’s not just a problem for Border Collies. CEA is more technically known as Choroidal Hypoplasia (CH). It is a recessively inherited eye disorder that causes abnormal development of the choroid - an important layer of tissue under the retina of the eye. Sadly there is no treatment or cure for CEA.

The symptoms and signs can vary greatly among affected dogs within one breed, between parent and offspring and even within a litter. The primary problem is choroidal hypoplasia (CH). There is under-development (hypoplasia) of the eye tissue layer called the choroid.

CEA can affect either one or both eyes. Complications of severe disease can lead to vision loss, although this disorder only rarely threatens total blindIn severely affected dogs, approximately 25% of dogs with CEA/CH, there are related problems with the health of the eye that can result in serious vision loss in some cases. Colobomas are seen at and near the optic nerve head as outpouchings or “pits” in the eye tissue layers. Colobomas can lead to secondary complications such as partial or complete retinal detachments and/or growth of new but abnormal blood vessels with hemorrhage – bleeding inside the eye. This happens in 5-10% of dogs with CEA/CH, generally by 2 years of age.



Canine Hip Dysplasia

This article was prepared by Dr Marilyn A Gill BVSc MVM

Hip Dysplasia in dogs is a disease that is characterised by instability of the hip joint (laxity), pain and eventually degenerative joint disease. It is considered to be inherited as a polygenic character (that is many genes are involved) and may be modified by many nongenitic factors. These non genetic factors are diet, rate of growth, body weight and exercise. In one report, rapid weight gain in the first 60 days of life and the ultimate above average weight of the dogs was associated with a higher level of hip dysphasia than the control group.

The Important Facts About Hip Dysplasia

Hip dysplasia occurs in all breeds of dogs, without radiographic proof, no breeder can state that his or her dogs are free of hip dysplasia. Considering the total number and popularity of Border Collies in Australia, the numbers that have been radiographed and results published are appallingly low.

Selection pressure on the breed has changed. As a working breed, the Border Collie was selected for its working instinct and ability to work all day. This meant that soundness was one of the two most important criteria selected for and as a consequence good hips. Now our selection criteria includes coat, breed standard conformation, temperament, soundness, CL status and collie eye. Show and pet soundness does not equate with working soundness. We can not assume good hips because the dog appears sound in the ring or backyard.

Current results in the Border Collie indicate that the incidence and severity of hip dysplasia is low, however severe cases have been seen.

As responsible breeders, for both the good of the breed and to meet our legal obligations of producing sound pups for sale, it is imperative that breeding stock be radiographed.



Contact Details

Sharryn Robertson
Esperance, WA, Australia
Phone : 0407427293
Email : [email protected]